First of all, most people do not have any side effects, but there are risks associated with the surgery as there are with any surgery. One of the main concerns is that you may have a tubal pregnancy which occurs in less than 1% of people that have a tubal ligation. About five out of every 1,000 women will experience a pregnancy following the procedure that is usually attributed to a surgery that was not correctly performed, pregnancy prior to surgery that was undetected, or the tubes growing back together.
There are also major complications associated with a tubal ligation although they are very rare and unlikely to occur. Some of the major complications include wound separation in which the scar separates after the procedure is completed and infection of the wound. It should be noted that infection is one of the number one risks and side effects of any surgery so this risk alone should not deter you from considering tubal ligation anymore than it would deter you from any type of surgery. Other major complications that can occur during surgery include organ injury, heavy blood loss, and problems with the general anesthesia that is administered.
In addition there are also a few additional risks associated with certain types of tubal ligation. For example, those who have a laparoscopic tubal ligation procedure have the rare complications of bladder or bowel injury. Those who receive tubal implants are also at risk of chronic pelvic pain and an increased risk of pelvic infection compared to other procedures. In general, the risks and side effects associated with tubal ligation are greater for those that have a heart condition, suffer from diabetes, are smokers, or are overweight.